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Technology Transfer Research Paper Sample

Introduction and Overview

Technology transfer is defined as the process by which technology is transmitted from in-groups or places where it originates from large distribution networks of places and people. In the modern era, as the progress of human beings is expanding at an outstanding pace, it has been imperative for society to adapt to the new technologies that can solve the issues that the world is facing at the moment. The technology life cycle is defined as the commercial benefit that a specific product gains from the financial return during its vital life and the expense incurred during the research and the development phase (Homeland Security, 2016). Although technology transfer and technology life cycle are important aspects of any organization and society, in general, both must acquire requisite and reasonable funding in order to attain their goals.

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Technology Development Life Cycle

The technology development life cycle describes the entire process that the new technology passes through before it actually reaches maturity and, thus, the main stages are research and development, scientific demonstration, system deployment, diffusion, and commercial maturity (Stanovnik & Faleskini, 1998).

The research and development stage is an important aspect of innovation and it is always placed at the front end of the innovation’s life cycle because it plays an important role in developing it as a stage, alongside the phases of commercialization (Stanovnik & Faleskini, 1998). Basically, research and development differ from one entity to the other, but one common feature between the two is the primary model adopted. This model is the research and development department that is staffed with engineers, whose duty is to develop products directly or products may be made up by industrial scientists, whose duty is to undertake the applied research in technological or scientific fields to enable the development of products in future.

Basically, research and development differ from most corporate activities and it is not intended at making a profit immediately. Research and development carry uncertain return on investment alongside the high risks (Universal Technical Resources Service, Inc., 2016).

Scientific development is a stage that entails scientific experiments undertaken with an aim of portraying scientific principles, rather than testing the hypothesis or gathering the knowledge. A good example of the scientific demonstration is the use of lean management, which is a good strategy that is important in enhancing efficiency, while, at the same time, reducing waste and costs incurred in the manufacturing process. An ardent example of an organization that has effectively used lean management is the Toyota Company (Ramey, 2013).

Deployment is the third stage of the technology development cycle and it entails the deployment of the electrical system, mechanical device, computer programs among other innovative technology with an aim of moving the product from development or temporary stage to the desired or permanent state. For instance, when developing aromatic coffee by Starbucks, the organization uses the high technological approach of sifting the coffee beans and putting a specific quantity of additives in order to come up with the product (Homeland Security, 2016).

Diffusion is the process in which innovation is spread through the social system for a specific period of time. If the product diffuses fast, then there are high chances for its success but if the diffusion is minimal or low, then there is a great probability that the investor will incur some losses. For example, the diffusion of the Proton Bierhard was so slow due to adverse technological applications of its functionality that the customers failed to purchase them as anticipated, resulting in losses and poor performance of the company (Branscomb, 2002).

Commercial maturity, which is also referred to as the substitution stage, represents the saturation level of any technology, calling for the extension of the technology through substitution. The substitution stage is dependent on market dynamics (Homeland security, 2016). An example of a technology that reached maturity is the desktop computers that called for more innovation, such as the development of laptops in order to handle the increased technological innovations in the market.

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Technology Transfer Processes

Technology transfer is defined as the process in which technology is transmitted from in-groups or places where it originates from an intense distribution network and places. Technological transfer occurs within the different premises and these are from large businesses to small businesses, from university to businesses, from one country to the other, among the universities, and both formally and informally (Audretsch et al., 2012).

In most cases, there is an unstoppable and continuous effort to share knowledge, technologies, facilities, and skills among the different entities, where each entity has its own core competence of developing new skills, which it can also transfer to other entities, thus expanding the knowledge pool in the world (Branscomb, 2002). The transfer of knowledge between the parties involved can be used in research and development, which is vital in promoting technological and scientific development. In addition to this, the transfer of technology is imperative in providing the range of users with the tremendous opportunity to further exploit and develop technology in new processes, services, products, applications, and materials (Anderson, 2010).

For instance, at the research and development stage, when the prospects of failure are high, transfer of skills and knowledge can be used to rekindle hope by bringing in more new ideas and inventions that will convince the members that, if adopted, they can positively turn around the performance of the firm. In the commercial maturity stage, the transfer of knowledge can be used to revitalize a user’s obsolete technology or product through substituting the existing ones with new technology and product development, which is useful in enabling the users to avoid the declining phase of doing business (Goldscheider & Gordon, 2006).

Source Funding and Issues

In technology transfer processes, such as research, funding plays a very important role in facilitating the whole process. Financial resources assist in acquiring the relevant skills that are important when developing technologies. For instance, if an organization has the requisite funds, it can attract the best skills that can then make the best innovations (Branscomb, 2002). For example, Google Company makes good technological advancements, as a result of its financial strength that has enabled the organization to attract and motivate its staff to come up with innovative technologies. Funding also assists in meeting the basic costs needed in coming up with new technologies that can assist other organizations to meet their needs.

There are specific sources of funding that have been vital in enhancing the transfer of knowledge and these are the financial institutions, such as banks that offer loans at interest, government grants that are usually free and seek to advance technologies that assist members of public and private equity by the firms themselves, which seek to develop and transfer their own technology (Henriques, Pecas & Silva, 2014).

In order to recommend the appropriate funding, the requests are usually evaluated by consultants, government agencies and other interested parties, such as business executives and non-governmental organizations to ensure that they are offered transparently and that they can meet the expectations for technological improvement (Ramey, 2013).

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Summary and Conclusion

The analysis is based on the technology transfer, technology development cycle, and the requisite funding, all of which are aimed at enhancing the important modern role of technology in governing the lives of people and businesses. Through technology, entities have managed to share information and this has played an important part in developing and improving the products, applications, services, and skills. Thus, to make the transfer of knowledge more effective, the appropriate funding systems have been developed to meet the ever-increasing demand for technology.

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