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Sport Injury



Introduction

Sport is one of the main aspects that are vital for the development of human beings. However, sports are associated with various complications like cerebral concussion. Cerebral concussion is one of the diseases that are considered to affect the brain. This disease is known to cause some traumatic effects to the brain of an individual. This disease is caused if the head is damaged. Any damage that is inflicted to the head may affect the brain. This may be caused if the impact makes the brain get into the contact with the skull. The skull is a part of the body that acts as the guard to the brain. If the head is smashed or if the head smashes an object, concussion may be suffered. Many of the scientists believe that this concussion has considerable effects to the brain. This concussion is known to cause an effect that is temporary and which may make some of the functions of the brain fail. This concussion also has considerable effects in terms of physical and emotional feelings of an individual. According to many scientists, it is a state, when functions of the brain are stopped and affected temporarily (Shannon, 2010).

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Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Many of the researches conducted have indicated that this injury is the one, which may heal with time. These studies also state that the individual suffering from this injury may suffer from confusion, amnesia, vomiting and nausea. Cerebral concussion is an injury that is classified as a brain injury that is mild and traumatic. There is a grading system that is used to identify and show how mild the concussion is. As indicated by many scientists, it may take a week or ten days to heal. This state is present in almost 80% of the population, but it may take longer in children and also those, who are experiencing adolescence (Meehan, 2011).

There are the symptoms that are substantially common with concussion. Some of these symptoms may end within days if they are not that serious. Some of these symptoms are physical or emotional. Physical symptoms include headache. This symptom is classified as the worst and most experienced. There are some other symptoms that are experienced, and they include dizziness, nausea, weakness and vomiting. There are some symptoms that are associated with movements, while others are associated with sensation. The person is also reported to experience difficulties in balance. There are symptoms that are associated with vision; some of them include a blurred vision, bright light and the sensitivity of light. There are other symptoms that emanate from the ears. Tinning is an aspect that is stated to take place in individuals. Convulsions are also other symptom that has been reported. This symptom is not widely associated with many individuals (Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. 2010).

There are symptoms that are associated with emotions. These symptoms include confusion. This is one common symptom that affects a lot of individuals. Disorientation is also another symptom that is associated with this concussion. The lack of attention is also reported being a symptom. Many of these individuals are said to lose their attention because of various factors. A reduced consciousness is also a symptom associated with this concussion. This symptom may not be identified if the results of concussion were not bad. Many of these individuals are also said to have sleep patterns that are different from the others. Concentration is also another factor that is associated with this concussion. Many of them are also reported performing their daily duties poorly. Restlessness is a symptom that is displayed by children (Schoenbrodt, 2001).

The brain is said to be delicate to a considerable degree and requires minimal disturbance. A frequent disturbance and damage of the brain makes it come into contact with the skull. This is an aspect that doctors criticize as it is known to increase the rate of concussion. A force operating on a part of the body makes the brain move, increasing the risk of concussion. This is mainly the case with many sports. The use of protective materials or avoidance of an excessive force makes it possible for a person to avoid concussion.

The mechanism, through which this happens, involves the impact of a rotational force. This is an example that may happen in boxing. The punches that come into contact with the head may result in this concussion. This is the type of sport that has a considerable amount of cases, when punches have led to concussion. Regular strikes on the brain may result in the cerebrospinal fluid becoming defenseless and lacking its total power to protect the brain. The American football is another sport that is associated with these injuries. The studies indicate that this sport has minimal effects as compared to boxing. Boxers are said to strive for knocking the rival down. This knockdown is stated to be a mild traumatic brain injury. This means that the sport aims at giving the opponent a concussion.

This has led to many organizations fighting for the ban on this sport. This fluid is identified to surround the brain and act as a cushion. A rational force is the main factor that is known to have a considerable effect to the brain. The magnitude of this force will lead to concussion. These forces are stated to move in an angular, linear or rotational direction. The brain part that is considerably affected by this force is the midbrain. The corpus callosum and the fornix are also affected. If these parts are affected, then the person feels a reduced consciousness. Any accident suffered as a result of motor vehicle crash may also lead to concussion. There are some other conditions like collision, falling, skiing, soccer and horseback riding, which may lead to concussion similar result. Soccer players are advised to avoid hitting the ball with their heads if the velocity of the ball is high. The equipment that is used for sports should be soft to a certain extent (Culverhouse, 2012).

The traumatic condition is known to have considerable effects in terms of the physiology of the brain. This can affect the brain for hours or even weeks. There are some cells that may perish after this injury. Concussion is known to affect a considerable portion of the brain. An axonal damage is one of the consequences that are suffered after this injury. An extensive study also revealed that some of the tissues of the brain are affected. The flow of blood to the brain is also said to reduce after this injury. Therefore, the amount of potassium in the brain may lead to substantially severe symptoms in case of being disrupted. Scientists explain that if the nerve cells are disrupted, then symptoms may be severe (Solomon, Johnston, & Lovell, 2006).

Health providers ensure that the injury is not considerably severe. This makes them use the ABC method. Screening to view any damage is disregarded as it is said to increase the rate of the symptoms experienced. If those symptoms are rather minimal, then it may be very difficult for health providers to provide a treatment. The avoidance of such injuries is a highly significant aspect that should be considered by each individual. Some of the ways of protecting these injuries include wearing of helmets, using of seat belts and also air bags. The elderly people are advised to avoid wearing shoes that have high heels as they lead to the loss of balance. Scientists explain that helmets should be designed in a way that they are made of materials that help in reducing the impact. Scientists also explain that some of the rules of these sports should be reviewed or changed.

If some of the symptoms are identified, then the treatment is swift and quick. Some of these symptoms include an increased headache, as well as an increased and repeated vomiting. An early and quick treatment should be given. If a person is diagnosed with this injury, a maximum rest should be guaranteed. This means that the patient needs about one week of rest. This means that no activity that needs a concentration should be undertaken by a patient at this stage as it is known to make the condition worse. There are some drugs that are recommended for the use in case of a headache. Ibuprofen is one of the drugs that are known to decrease its rate. Alcohol and other drugs not prescribed by a doctor should be avoided. Studies indicate that one percent of those individuals with a mild traumatic brain injury need a surgery. People involved in the professional sport are closely monitored at this stage to ensure that symptoms do not get worse. If symptoms increase, the patient should be returned to the hospital for a further treatment (Mueller, 2009).

If symptoms do not heal well, then a person may get another concussion. If this concussion becomes persistent, then a person is liable to suffer from depression and Parkison’s disease. Individuals, who are 55 years old or above, may require substantially more time in order to heal. Stress and other injuries sustained at this period can make the condition of the concussion severe and extensive. Any sportsperson, who has suffered from a concussion, is at the risk of suffering from another in the future. If concussions are severe, then they have an impact on the development of brains of children. Individuals suffering from concussions that are repeated may indicate signs of a reduced mental and physical performance. Severe injuries may lead to an excessive concussion if they are suffered constantly. The condition suffered may heal with time, but can lead to a more severe syndrome called the second impact.

The conducted studies indicate that above 70% of people, who are reported to have injuries to the brain, experience mild consequences of the trauma. These studies also indicated that many circumstances of concussions are associated with brain injuries. Since the symptoms of concussion are not well understood, about 25% of people suffering from concussion may not get a required treatment. Some of the conducted studies indicated that mainly children and adolescents suffer from concussion as compared to the older people. Men are said to suffer from a mild traumatic brain injury in a more increased way as compared to a woman. Athletes, who are females, are attributed to suffer from concussion more often as compared to men. Approximately 5% of the concussions experienced are associated with sports. There is also a recommended timetable for sportspeople to follow in case they suffer from concussion. This timetable limits them from going back to sports immediately after suffering from concussion.

As it has been indicated above, concussion has considerable effects to physical and emotional feelings of an individual. Rehabilitation is a critical step that is necessary for patients, who suffer from concussion. Those, who are reported to have simple injuries, do not require rehabilitation. Minor injuries are stated to take minimum time to heal. These minor injuries are said to take about one week maximum and about six hours minimum. Those, who are diagnosed with severe injuries, should be rehabilitated to ensure they recover well. This is done in case an individual is said to suffer from a coma. People, who are in a coma, require a specific attention as they can hardly do anything on their own. A proper handling is necessary to ensure that they recover in the shortest time possible. Therapists make it possible for a person to regain his or her consciousness and balance as a way to ensure they get back to their normal lives (Apps & Walter, 2012).

Individuals, who are said to have difficulties in speech, require a special attention. This is done n order for them to regain their speech. Some machines and equipments can be used to ensure that an individual regains his or her health. Therapists, who help individuals in regaining their speech, use special exercises. Some of these exercises include the ones that help tighten the muscles of the tongue and the face. This therapy is also highly significant as it makes it possible for an individual to swallow food. This therapy is advised when an individual cannot eat food in a ordinary manner. If the individual is not able to communicate in due time, then a board for communication or computer is necessary to enhance the communication (Lovell, 2004).

In the events of severe injuries, then a special attention is required. A neuropsychologist should be contacted if conditions are severe to a considerable degree. This makes it possible for the doctor and family to make plans about how to rehabilitate a person. This is necessary as some long-term decisions about an individual should be planned in advance. This makes it possible for the patient to receive a treatment that focuses on their concentration, vision and attention. An ample and adequate amount of time for relaxation is an aspect that is highly recommended by psychologists. This makes it possible for individuals to rest and avoid strenuous activities that will increase the severity of concussion. Psychologists also advise individuals suffering from concussion to engage in exercises that are light and not strenuous. Some of these activities may include walking. These exercises are said to help an individual in avoiding various complications like depression and stress (Carroll & Rosner, 2011).

The examination of an individual suffering from concussion should be swift. Various parts of the body should be carefully scanned. Some of these parts include the nose, neck, jaws, as well as a person’s vision and balance. Over the years, many of the sportsmen have contracted concussion as a result of sports. One of the sportsmen, who have suffered from severe concussion, is Muhammad Ali. Ali was a boxer, who suffered dementia as a result of blows, which had severe impacts on his head. This condition is said to result in considerably severe consequences to a person, and it affects a lot of boxers. Billy Conn and Bobby Chason are among boxers, who are reported to have suffered from this disease. Many people have argued against Ali suffering from dementia, but it is rather clear that the blows he suffered during his career have attributed to this condition. His physician had also refuted saying that a physical trauma was what caused Ali suffer from dementia.

The conducted studies have linked many of boxers and wrestlers, who suffer and ultimately die as a result of dementia. This is the case that was recorded with Chris Benoit, who died because of having committed a suicide. Before his death, Benoit was treated for dementia. A former boxer, Jerry Quarry, was reported to die as a result of dementia. This has led to studies that have confirmed that these blows lead to the damage of the brain. The conducted studies have revealed that his health was worsening every day despite the regular claims that he was fine.

Conclusion

Cerebral concussion is a disease, which is very common in sports. This disease is said to be a result of a force that displaces the brain. However, the brain may regain and rediscover its former place. This disease is said to either be mild or severe. Mild concussion is said to take few days to recover. Severe concussion takes a considerable amount of time and may affect an individual until his or her death. Sports should be regulated, so that an excessive force should not be used to reduce the cases of concussion. Sports, like boxing and football, should be disregarded, or their rules should be restructured. Special materials or gears should also be introduced in various sports in order to reduce the amount of cases of concussion. Boxers should also be advised to take a considerably small amount of time in their careers to reduce the risks of concussion. A special attention should also be granted to those, who have severe concussion.

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