The two key economic systems are highlighted in the book. The first significant economic system that has been described in the book is the traditional economic system. It is worth noting that the traditional economic system is always characterized by the new generation of children promoting the economic position initially held by their parents. For instance, Doctorow presents a clear picture that Lil is a second generation woman with decent education, but she subscribes to the same school of thought when it comes to economic matters (Doctorow 12). This means that the Bitchun society is guided by the traditional aspects in the economy, as different generations hold similar positions on the economic matters.
Economy and Work
The second economic system that has been represented in this book is the mixed economy. The mixed economy entails the elements of both market and command economies, where individuals and the government influence the operations of the economy. For instance, Doctorow opines that the economy was doing well under the control of authorities, and everyone had the opportunity to contribute to its growth (Doctorow 34). Individuals participate in it by “killing scarcity”, while the government participates in the economy by regulating the systems of operation.
The labor market in these societies is efficient, because employers are able to find the right employees to fill up the different positions. There is an adequate supply of labor in these societies, because death has been killed. Again, everyone appears to be conversant with the required technological aspects of the labor market; hence, ensuring an adequate supply of employees. However, the labor market seems to be “dying” gradually, because individuals believe they are self-sufficient. They do not need a workplace to access what they want, because everything is readily available for them (Doctorow 13). In fact, Doctorow is surprised that individuals from the second-generation are determined to eliminate the workplaces, and replace them with a system where everything comes automatically. One of the key economic issues facing these societies is rampant strikes by the employees. There is a presentation of a situation, where lecturers at the university strike. This appears to be one of the most significant problems, as these societies have to deal with such tensions in the job market. More so, there are the challenges, where some people, especially those from the second generation, do not want to engage in physical activities in the form of work. For example, Doctorow points out that second-generation’s individuals, such as Lil, are more addicted to technology and not ready to work in the physical workplaces (Doctorow 17).
There are numerous occupations, professions, and forms of employment described in the book. One of the key occupations highlighted in the book is the public health occupation. In this occupation, there are doctors, who serve as the main professionals. Doctors play the vital role of healing people and ensuring that they do not die (Doctorow 22). However, various individuals, such as Doctorow, remain skeptical about the roles played by doctors in curing people from death. The second occupation being mentioned in the book is teaching. In this profession, there are lecturers, who play a vital role of passing their knowledge to the students pursuing different courses. Professors are also available to support the working of lecturers in the profession; hence, boosting the significance of education in the society. The third occupation that has been captured in the book is the security profession (Doctorow 36). There are security personnel, who offer security at the university building and other areas of campus. They serve to protect the society from all sorts of unrest coming up. The fourth example is the business occupation. There are businesspersons in this society. For instance, Lil’s parents are involved in the matters related to business, and they take this as their profession. All these occupations and professions enhance the economic growth of these societies.
Politics and Government
The book and the films present two vital political systems. It is crucial to note that these societies are governed by both democratic and autocratic political structures to some extent. Nevertheless, the democratic political system appears to be more dominant, as compared to the autocratic one. A perfect example of the democratic system is illustrated by Lil’s participation in the voting process. The votes are collected in secret and publicly declared; hence, indicating the aspect of democracy available in these societies (Doctorow 42). The high level of democracy reflects the independence of these individuals and their direct participation in the process of a decision-making. They do not wait for anyone to make decisions for them, because they, as a society, believe in their own independence. Some shreds of authoritarian rule are also shown in the book and the film. The tyrannical rule is especially illustrated at the university, where professors want to dominate lecturers. This reflects the entire government system, where security personnel are used to muzzle independent voices in the society (Doctorow 57).
One of the most significant groups that exercise authority in these societies is the university management made up by Professors. The professors are in positions of authority and tend to make any form of decisions relating to the management of their respective universities. This does not impress lecturers, who feel that these Professors are unnecessarily tyrannical in their exhibition of authority. They are not approachable and believe that they are right in every action they take. Doctorow points out that the tyrannical authority held by Professors is not in tandem with the tradition of the Bitchun society (Doctorow 58). Another group of individuals that hold authority in these societies is businesspersons. Lil’s parents have authority in the society, because of their influence. They seem to hold an open form of authority, which is receptive to the new ideas from the individuals across generations. They are democratic in their approach to the society, and are able to welcome new and divergent ideas without questions. The power exhibited by businesspersons appears to be more fulfilling and helpful to the growth of the societies.
It is worth noting that these societies seem to be more on a pluralistic-based operation than on an elite-based system. They are pluralistic, because they present a clear opportunity, where divergent views are considered and used for their own progress. They do not operate on a single rule, where one view is taken as the final view for everyone. They allow individuals from the medical, business, and teaching professions the chance to present their ideas on the different happenings within the society. The pluralistic nature of this society is also indicated by the manner, in which Doctorow and his friend Dan are accommodated (Doctorow 17). They are also entitled to their own positions without any form of victimization.
The military plays the role of guarding these societies against any form of external aggression. The military remains firm in its operations and is dedicated to serving individuals in the best way possible. The military is important in this context, because it cools down any form of aggression emanating from both internal and external forces. This assures everyone in these societies a high level of peaceful coexistence. Again, the military is standby to serve every member of the society that comes to them with the needs requiring urgent address.