Animal Farm as an Antiutopian Model of Communist Society
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George Orwell is one of the greatest representatives of English antiutopian thought of the XXth century. In his antiutopian writings, he assumes the opportunities of his contemporary society in the respect of its transformation in totalitarian one. “Animal farm” is among them and reflects the regeneration of the utopian principles of the Marxist program in the terror of communist states, especially the USSR. This novel preserves its significance till nowadays, stressing the bivalence and danger of radical political movements that grasp the power in their arms.
It is easy to see the scheme of the USSR foundation in “Animal Farm” from the background with the ideas of its intellectual inspirers in the XIXth century till the falsification and vulgarization of them in the XXth century that led to Stalin’s usurpation of power with repressive methods of governance. The stylistic device personification in the novel of such a tyrannical leader is presented through the image of pig Napoleon, who applies in the animal society the variety of repressive modes on his way to the highest leading position.
After the animal revolution gained victory over people, Napoleon appropriates all the merits of other animals and arrests the previous leader, who later was proclaimed the nation’s enemy. The next step that strengthens personality cult is the control of the media. With the help of pig Squealer, Napoleon creates new laws and new official outlook, which have to be accepted by all the animals. Otherwise, they are the nation’s enemies and are executed by the new institution which reminds People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs in the USSR.
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However, Napoleon and the top governance are free to do what they want. Napoleon goes further and personality cult becomes the cult of the God-Napoleon. The new state is dying of the economic crisis, but the leader proclaims the success of the formal economic plans. In the end, Napoleon gives up even the highest value of the new state – its rejection of people: he is seen to be among them, but it is difficult to define who is a pig and who is a human being that is symbolic.
In “Animal Farm” George Orwell was successful at emphasizing all the most important peculiarities and realia of totalitarianism. He showed the mechanisms of degeneration of utopian communist theory, violence, inhumanity, and absurdity of the new paradise.