Ethical Implications associated with psychological research involving human subjects
Psychological research that involves the participation of human beings gives rise to a variety of ethical issues. Ethical implications include informed consent and confidentiality. To protect human subjects researchers should ensure they obtain informed consent before the beginning of the research (Koller, 2008). Participants are well informed of all the procedures and their potential risks. To ensure that researchers meet the ethical requirement of confidentiality they should guarantee in writing to the participants that identifying information and responses given during the research will under no circumstance be shared with any third party.
Theoretical perspectives from which to explain psychological development throughout the lifespan
According to the psychosexual theory that was developed by Sigmund Freud personality is developed at a tender age, during the childhood stage. According to this theorist, the experiences that one has in the childhood stage are responsible for the behaviors they display in adulthood (Elkatawneh, 2013). The Psychosocial Theory of Development was developed by Erik Erikson and proposes that personality is not shaped in the childhood stage instead personality is developed throughout the lifespan of an individual (Gilleard, & Higgs, 2016).
The two theories focus on early experiences however they have notable differences and similarities. For instance, Freud’s theory called the first stage the Oral stage (birth-1year) and focuses on eating and various functions performed by the child through the mouth while Erikson refers to it as the Trust Vs. Mistrust stage and this is where the child forms a trusting bond with the caregiver.
Also, Erikson’s theory preferred to take a broad view of development such that it encompasses three stages; childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, unlike Freud’s theory that had focused more on the psychosexual approach (Gilleard, & Higgs, 2016). Despite their differences, both theories stress the importance of social experiences and recognize that childhood plays an important role in shaping the adult personality of an individual.
Theoretical model or process for explaining or measuring intelligence
Gardner's multiple intelligences theoretical model presents a means of understanding intelligence (Sener, & Cokcalıskan, 2018). This theory proposes that if a person possesses musical intelligence the individual is likely to have abilities to include being strong in verbal and naturalistic intelligence. The theory helps to classify the weaknesses and strengths of an individual through eight types of intelligence. The theorist emphasizes that everyone is born possessing the eight intelligences.
However, each individual has different sets of developed intelligences. This model also presents various strengths to include the theorist’s view on intelligence is supported by scholastic performance and also the different bits of intelligence helps in pointing out areas where individuals need help (Sener, & Cokcalıskan, 2018). Also, it displays weakness to include it does not define what determines intelligence.
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Symptoms, challenges, and possible treatment of a psychological disorder
Anxiety disorder is a result of the brain reacting to stress and it causes an overwhelming feeling of fear. The most common signs of anxiety disorder are panic, lack of sleep, and extreme sweating (Bystritsky, Khalsa, Cameron, & Schiffman, 2013). Possible treatment of anxiety disorder includes antidepressant prescription drugs to include Bupropion and psychotherapy which is a type of counseling that assists an individual to learn how their emotions affect behaviors. Thus they can be able to come up with measures they can use to effectively manage the anxiety.
Concepts or Topics That I Found Most Interesting
The concept that I found most interesting in the class is social psychology. This concept was important in broadening my understanding of how different individuals to certain roles. From lessons on this concept, I have come to understand that I should not assume anything about an individual based on their current environment since they might be reacting to what is around them, and their behavior doesn’t necessarily represent their personality.