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Health Promotion Model



Introduction

Various nursing concepts provide a strong background for nursing practitioners by enabling them to understand the nature of health behavior indicators that act as the basis for counseling patients to adhere to healthy lifestyles. This essay is an attempt to analyze the health promotion model (HPM), which is a nursing concept that is based on theoretical roots of the two following theories: expectancy-value and the social cognitive theory (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2010).

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The first deals with the patients who are engaged in various activities in order to achieve certain goals that are perceived by them as possible; it is based on valued results. The second is about the nature of the interactions of thoughts and behaviors in a certain environment.

The main aim of the essay is to analyze the HPM from different perspectives according to the available academic literature. The research results will help to have a better understanding of why the aforementioned concept is significant to nursing practice. Moreover, the relations between social cognitive and expectancy-value theories in relation to the HPM will be defined.

Definition (Explanation) of the Selected Concept

Before providing the definition of the HPM, it is worth first defining separate words the model consists of. According to Cambridge Dictionaries Online, health is the body's condition and degree that is free from any illness; it is also an estimate of a person's well-being (Health, n.d.). In addition, health is considered to be a condition that may be in the process of development or change; it also can be a system or/and organization.

According to the same source, the process of promotion can be defined as an act of encouraging something for development or the activities that are aimed at advertising something (Promotion, n.d.). Finally, the model is something that is considered a good example of something that can be further copied (Model, n.d.). Thus, the HPM is a group of activities that are different in their emphasis on the frames of providing health care services (Tannahill, 1985).

The model was proposed by Pander as an alternative to all health protection models. The model focuses on three areas: the first is about individual experiences and characteristics; the second deals with involved technicians and facts that are specific to behavior; and the last is the behavioral outcome (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2010). According to Tannahill (1985), the definition of this model is different from other definitions. However, it acts as a significant basis for developing various activities and strategies that are designed to promote health.

Literature Review

Various scholars apply the HPM in relation to different topics. For example, in her editorial, Jackson (2015) provides a wide range of areas where health promotion is applied in practice. Moreover, apart from her students' works, she mentions various health promotion strategies within the frames of the healthy public policy. Jackson goes beyond the borders and presents the issue that is called Global Health Promotion. It comprises the papers on different topics connected to the promotion of healthy ways of life all over the world, starting from Africa, going through New Zealand, moving to Spain, and eventually to Europe (Jackson, 2015).

There are numerous topics on health promotion as well as there are barriers that do not allow recognizing the universal context due to differences in perceptions of health promotion all over the world. Jackson stresses that there are a lot of articles that are submitted to be published about health promotion. However, it is necessary to decide how to select them correctly as they are all important and equally insightful (Jackson, 2015).

In their book, Edelman, Mangle, and Kudzma (2013), attempt to describe the notion of health promotion during a person's lifespan. The book contains the explanation of the HPM with regard to all its notions, starting from its foundations and assessment, and continuing with interventions and global health issues that emerge within the frames of health promotion. Each unit contains objectives that the reader will be able to reach after they read it.

Moreover, the authors present key terms that are discussed in every chapter. A major focus remains on the questions of health care costs reduction, prevention of diseases, and promotion of health. The book is considered to be a guide to understanding the main concepts connected with health promotion.

Witzell (1989) looked at the HPM and considered issues from another perspective, trying to test the model on blue-collar volunteers. The examination included four psychological variables, three particular health-promoting behaviors, and one modifying variable. The scholars used various techniques in order to analyze their data. The most influential predictors of health promotion behavior were self-efficacy and health status.

The main result regarded the positive role of the HPM when there was a need to analyze the occurrence of health-promoting behaviors on the example of blue-collar workers (Weitzel, 1989). Other scholars tried further developing this academic area and proceeded to gender and geographic differentiation. Thus, they chose female workers from Denmark, considering health-reducing inequalities (Jensen, 2013).

Another category of scholars tried to establish the relationship between the HPM and the blood pressure of hypertensive patients who resided in rural areas (Sharifirad et al., 2015). The scholars paid considerable attention to perceptions as the most significant predictors of behavior. They argue that there are a strong correlation and relationship between human behavior and beliefs. The scholars are convinced that in order to improve the behavior of patients and their self-care, it is necessary to understand how they perceive the world and behave accordingly. In their cross-sectional study, they questioned 671 patients according to the HPM (Sharifirad et al., 2015).

The results of the research demonstrated negative correlations between situational influences of behavioral effects, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits. At the same time, there was a positive correlation between systolic blood pressure and barriers perceived by patients. The main conclusion of this research confirmed the positive effect of HPM and the predictive power of systolic blood pressure (Sharifirad et al., 2015).

The conducted analysis of academic literature shows that HPM is a widely used nursing concept. It is applied not only in different areas of health promotion by numerous scholars but is also analyzed across the world at different levels of decision-making processes. In order to understand the HPM better, it is important to further analyze the characteristics of this concept.

Defining Attributes of the Concept

The HPM as a nursing concept has a couple of characteristics or attributes. The first concerns individual experiences of the patient that characterize his or her behavior. The second is about cognition and the effect of the specific behavior on the person. It is mainly regarding the perceptions of possible positive consequences of deciding to lead a healthy way of life, the influences on both personal and interpersonal levels, depending on the situation, and the commitments of the patient to a certain health plan of actions.

After some time, when a certain individual comes to a conclusion that it is important to analyze his or her behavior, and, as a result, he or she decides on certain plans of actions satisfying both his or her personal preferences and demands, it is essential to consider the outcomes of such behavior, which should promote health. It is an indicator of the final decision to be healthy and prepare oneself for doing everything to reach the desired healthy state (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2010).

Antecedent and Consequence

The HPM as every other nursing concept has numerous antecedents and consequences. As has been previously discussed, there is a close connection between the behavior and perception of patients (Sharifirad et al., 2015). The question becomes even more complicated when it deals with aging patients referred to HPM. It is worth looking at the problem of aging that is spreading to the other continents and consider the adults who represent urban areas.

Korean scholars discovered a relationship between the physical activities of adults and their expectations about the aging process (Cho, Choi, Lee, & Cho, 2015). The number of urban middle-aged adults was measured within the frames of the HPM. The antecedent, in this case, is patients' perceptions and believes in physical stamina and possibilities of their age before the opportunity to discuss or being questioned on a healthy way of life. The consequence is their actual behavior after completing the questionnaire based on their beliefs.

When patients believe that they are old, it has a direct effect on their physical activities. There is a universal proverb about the actual age of a person - this is the age they feel. Thus, if a person feels like being, for example, in their forties and is engaged in regular physical activities in the gym, there is a high chance that this feeling will be preserved a couple of years later when they continue to work out.

The proverb has a direct connection to the expectancy-value theory when a patient behaves according to his or her values. It is believed that people are goal-oriented, so it is necessary for them to choose a type of behavior that would bring them success in the future. The aforementioned theory is considered to be a basis of the social cognitive concept in a certain way as three factors such as people, their behavior, and the environment influence each other constantly.

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Empirical Referents

As it has been mentioned in the literature, the HPM is about the identification of personal or individual factors that impact a healthy way of behavior. People decide on an action plan and, finally, act in order to achieve a healthy lifestyle. For example, urban middle-aged adults with their frequency of physical activities depending on age or patients with a high systolic blood pressure provide ways to determine the presence of the HPM nursing concept and further measure it.

However, in each of the two cases, it is necessary to measure blood pressure and define the correlations between the physical activities of the patients and their age. Moreover, in order to be able to understand how to apply the HPM successfully during the intervention process, the provider of healthcare should conduct a clinical assessment of the patient's health plan based on their understanding of the model components that are critical in their practice. Depending on the case, the nursing practitioner should measure blood pressure or the number of undertaken physical activities to see the effect of the HPM.

Model Case

Casey's model is the one related to the case that can be used and discussed in detail within the HPM framework. It is a family-centered model that is used in pediatric care. It concerns the belief that children are best cared for by families with various degrees of help from qualified nursing personnel (Casey's model, 2008). It includes the attributes of individual characteristics of the patient, the impact of the parents on the behavior of the child, and if it happens, the consequences of mistreatment of the little patient.

Depending on the case, it is necessary to understand the situation that leads to the sickness of a child and the attitude of other parties such as parents or nurses that provoke the corresponding child's behavior. If he or she is treated well, the behavior will help to perceive the world positively and will lead to a faster recovery. However, if the child is mistreated by either the family or medical personnel, there is a chance that the illness will progress further.

Consequently, positive behavior is the main prerequisite or antecedent, whereas a final recovery is a consequence according to Casey's model. Situational consequences should be used as the main instruments for measuring the variable of the HPM. Adults should observe the child's behavior and act to please him or her accordingly, so a faster recovery process may be achieved.

Alternative Cases

The borderline case that can be taken as an alternative to the model case is the nursing theory of Ramona Mercer (Chea & Kim, 2011). There are four global concepts that constitute the model. They are as follows: human being, environment, health, and nursing, unlike the HPM that additionally consists of other attributes such as illnesses as the fourth basis. Moreover, the selected theory is mainly maternal, whereas the HPM does not define borders within the frames of gender and age.

The contrary case that is considered as a complete opposite of the HPM is the concepts of Jean Watson's theory of human caring (Bunkers, 2011). On the one hand, it may seem that it has something in common with the selected concept as it is considered a nursing care concept. However, the main idea is the combination of equanimity and a loving-kindness practice where the main role in the treatment process belongs to the spiritual potential of a human being and a belief in a miracle. The questions of ego and cultivation of spiritual practice are also important in this case (Bunkers, 2011).

The selected nursing concept is different from the HPM as it uses different approaches to recovery. It may be achieved through art, inner harmony, various ways of knowing things in the combination with meditative sessions. On the one hand, in the case, of the HPM, it is possible to measure its presence or application. On the other hand, it is much more challenging to penetrate the patient's mind and understand the essence of the whole situation within the frames of Watson's theory of human caring.

Conclusion

According to the analysis of the literature, I had a chance not only to realize the essence of the Health Promotion Model but also to acquire a deeper understanding of other concepts and compare it with the HPM. The selected nursing concept made me believe that it is one of the best ways to make others healthy in spite of their age and place of living. The key concepts of the model are inseparable characteristics that provide an even stronger understanding of what people should do in order to lead a healthy way of life.

A person, the environment, nursing, health, and illnesses are all the elements of the system that makes a person choose what means they should use to become active and make progress in life. It is undeniable that the other concepts in nursing practice are significant; however, the HPM is the one that helps to achieve a better understanding of the relations between a person's behavior, thoughts, and environment that comprise the basis of the social cognitive theory.

In order to be able to promote a healthy way of life, it is necessary to be able to engage individuals in their actions, which is the basis of the expectancy-value theory. Understanding the theoretical framework is the necessary step towards working with patients successfully.

That is why taking into consideration the aforementioned theories, it is important to recognize three attributes according to which the HPM can be measured. The model components are inseparable in the context of the selected nursing concept, and they should be used by other students and young professionals in their practices of compiling health promotion plans or other clinical assessments.

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