The nursing theories represent a set of interrelated concepts, which are self-explanatory and predictive. These theories are collected models, definitions, assumptions and propositions. The theories of nursing are derived from two basic methods; inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The objectives are to assess the condition of the patient through the various methods, which are explained in accordance with nursing theory. The needs of the patient can also be identified through the scope of this body of knowledge. The rules of effective interaction and communication with the patient can be clearly elucidated through nursing theories. The theories can be selected according to the needs of the patient. The patient’s diagnosis can be determined through the use of the main concepts of the nursing theory in order for him to be successfully healed. These theories can also be used to cope with the needs of the patient. The process can also be evaluated according to the obtained results.
Importance of Studying Nursing Theories
Nurses are obliged to describe, predict and explain the everyday health care experiences. Therefore, to diagnose a patient, they have to use nursing theories. The diagnosis becomes relevant after it accurately identifies the cause of the patient’s disease. Testing the theories to come up with a solution is a unique way of providing medication. The theories can also be used for intervention, assessment and evaluation of the nursing care. They act as guidelines for the nurses, which have to be followed when providing the medication for the patient. It is quite important for the nurses to have a guide when carrying out their activities. The theories also serve as a rationale for collecting valid and reliable data concerning the health of the clients. This is essential for the implementation of effective clinical decisions by the nurses.
They also help in describing the criteria, which are used to measure the quality of nursing. Trained nurses should provide quality services as stated in the theories. The services should entirely coincide with the theories of nursing. The core ideas, which are developed owing to this body of knowledge, are based on grand nursing theories, mid-range nursing theories, and nursing practice theories. The ideas are shared when treating patients, which helps to encourage spreading knowledge on how to diagnose a certain ailment. The students of nursing should be able to know the specific healthcare terminology in order to define it. Self-governance and independence are unique values, which have to be acquired. According to Watson, autonomy have to be enhanced through the definition of the independent functions.
The theories offer a framework, which can be used to generate the new ideas and knowledge. The experts who work in the field of nursing can also use the ideas and knowledge to carry out topical researches. There are gaps, which are identified within the specific field. People can come up with the solutions, which are relevant to fill the stipulated gaps. Conceptual frameworks from other disciplines can be developed due to thorough research on the theories. Ideas can be borrowed from other fields, which are quite important to solve healthcare issues. It is necessary to adopt and implement ideas that can improve the field of nursing. Hence, patients will receive the utmost care from the nurses. The knowledge nurses gain should be used to improve the society, which can be influenced in a number of ways. The patient will be able to recover owing to the expertise of the nurse. It is obvious that each patient would be glad to receive quality care from the nurses. The provision of high-quality care for patients can make them return for more services if only they are well treated. The quality of service will help to determine if the nurse is experienced in the specialized field.
One of the most significant aspects of nursing theory is the theory of caring formulated by Jean Watson. There are seven assumptions which are associated with the theory of caring. They reveal main issues of Jean Watson’s investigation. For example, according to this theorist, effective caring is a basis for promotion of health and family or individual growth. Caring should consist of curative factors to result in the satisfaction of human needs. In order to practice and demonstrate caring effectively, it should be realized interpersonally. Watson also asserted that caring is more healthogenic than curing since a science of caring is an integral part of curing. Moreover, Watson claimed that caring is fundamental principle of effective nursing. These are the basic assumptions that frame the theory of caring. The theory follows the assumptions as the guidelines to create a serious perception of nursing care.
The theory of caring has four major concepts which will be discussed broadly. These are the human being, health, the society/environment, and nursing. Human beings are referred to as valued individuals, which have to be cared for, nurtured, assisted and understood. The general philosophical view states that a person is a fully dynamic integrated self. Watson views the human as different from and greater than the sum of her or his parts.
Jean Watson connects her theory of caring with environment since in her opinion, nursing has existed in every society. The attitude of caring cannot be transmitted from one generation to another. Nursing is transmitted through culture of professional experience to get through negative factors of the environment.
Nursing is associated with preventing illness, caring for the sick, restoring health and promoting health. It also focuses on the treatment and health promotion in order to prevent a disease in the future. Watson believes that holistic health is vital concept needed to be applied to practice effective caring.
There are ten primary curative factors associated with nursing. First, it is essential to instill hope in the patient. Second, the diseased has to develop human-altruistic system of values. The nurse should cultivate sensitivity to herself to help others. No less important is the development of helping-trust connection between the nurse and the patient. The nurse should help the patient to accept and promote expressions of negative and positive feelings. There should be the allowance for the existential-phenomenological forces.
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These primary factors are further discussed herein. The formation of the humanistic-altruistic system of significance appears at an early age where the values are shared with the parents. It is also acquired through life experiences one is subjected to, as well as the exposure to humanities. This can be perceived as the nurse’s own maturation, which will promote the altruistic behavior.
Faith and hope are both important in the curative and carative processes. The nurse will continue to administer faith and hope when the modern science has nothing to offer to the person’s inner world. The cultivation of sensitivity towards others will help the nurse to develop their feelings, which will make them interact with others. This also encourages self-actualization and self-growth. The nurses are able to promote a high level functioning and health when they pay individual attention to the patients.
Communication is the strongest tool, which supports caring and builds rapport. Communication may entail nonverbal and verbal interaction, and listening. The characteristics of helping are warmth, empathy and congruence. Such traits will help the nurses’ cater for the needs of the patients efficiently. The feelings that the nurses express are important because they reflect how the nurses will be able to treat patients. The thoughts and behavior directly depend on feelings, which need to be considered to allow for a caring relationship.
The use of scientific problem solving is the only way to allow for prediction and control, which will permit self-correction. The nurses should be able to apply this method in the various fields to accurately diagnose the individual. The process of caring should be focused on the teaching process as well as the learning process. When the nurse understands the perceptions of a patient, he or she will be able to come up with a cognitive plan for treating.
Watson divided the internal and external variables, which are manipulated by the nurse to provide protection and support for the patient’s physical and mental well-being. The internal and external environments are both interdependent. The nurses should provide privacy, safety and comfort as determinants of the carative factor.
The quality of nursing care and the promotion of optimal health are as important as each patient’s need. Watson also created her hierarchy of needs. There are the lower order needs, which comprise of ventilation, elimination and food. They are also called the biophysical needs. The other stage of lower order needs is represented by psychophysical needs, which comprise of the need for inactivity-activity and the need for sensual life. On the contrary, higher order needs represent psychosocial needs, which focus on human achievements, the necessity of affiliation, interpersonal-intrapersonal need, and self-actualization.
The nurse should be able to understand the patient from his point of view. This will ensure that the nurse attends to the patient’s order of needs and tries to understand it. The nurse will be able to assist the patient to find courage and strength to face life or death. The nurse should make the patient feel comfortable and be ready for any outcome.
An identity of the patient is viewed in the context of the community, culture and family. Patients embody point of practice rather than technology. The theory of caring will help the nurses administer quality services to the clients. The nurses should also understand the patient has special needs that have to be fulfilled. The nurse should be able to see from the view of the health consumers and understand what they need.
The theory of caring shows how nurses can use humanistic principles to treat the patients. Since caring is an important part in nursing, it needs to focus on leadership. Furthermore, the nurses should treat the health consumers with the utmost respect. The education of the nurses is carried out with meticulous attention to detail. The health policy shows that the nursing care should be carried out with humility and affection.
Real Life Cases
The Caring Model related to the treatment of people with hypertension. The quality of life of the victims with hypertension improved after they were treated with care owing to Jean Watson’s Caring Model. The application of Caring Model caused the decrease of blood pressure of the patients.
Depressed women. The model was employed to see how depressed women reacted to caring. The group of women that were subjected to the Caring Model showed better signs of recovery than those women who were under ordinary medical treatment. This shows that caring will help in treating miscellaneous illnesses.
Watson’s theory of caring became imperative in the field of nursing. The nurses need to gain the knowledge on how to treat different patients. As practice shows, caring is important since it has changed the lives of many. It is also evident that caring can change the state of health of a person. Caring has managed to conquer mental and physical complications where modern medicine is powerless. The level of caring is very important as it totally influences the health of the clients. Even if one awaits death, caring will make him prepare to meet his last hour comfortably. It is the duty of the nurses to make sure that the clients are treated with efficient care.
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