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Quality Management: ADNEC, Employee and Motivation


Scholars consider human factor as one of the core success aspect for the organizational development. Therefore, the scope of this paper is to rely on the motivational and job satisfaction theories as well as employees’ performance measurement since these are the contributing factors for the job motivation in ADNEC Group. Consequently, there is a need of outlining and discussing the core theoretical approaches towards employee’s performance, its measurement and core motivating factors.

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In this paper, the job design theory and its contributions to the employee performance enhancement will be discussed. This research will be dedicated to the analysis of the quality management in the ADNEC Group and its London branch, namely ExCel London Exhibition.

ADNEC Group is an international business management and venue development company. The portfolio of this business entity currently involves the Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre (the largest center for exhibition in the Gulf); ExCeL London, (the largest center for exhibition in the capital); Al Ain Convention Centre – the developer of new rand in Al Ain historic city, which is the gravity defying and capital’s iconic tower; set of different number of hotel projects.

The network of this group is in the process of its constant development both through construction and acquisition. The major purpose of this company is the international exhibitions, live events, conferences and industries leading venue provider in the global scopes. Currently, ADNEC Group provides venue facilities and consistently high standards both for the client and management relationships. One of the major emphases of its top management is placed on the synergies existing within a global venue network (ADNEC, 2014).

Process of Control in Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company

The following types of control are used in Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company and Excel London Exhibition. In other words, cultural, financial, and operational, behaviors of the employees is controlled in three different ways - employment of personnel with certain desired values (1); changing the values of employees in accordance with the corporate culture of ADNEC (2); informing the employees of the way they are expected to act and behave in the process of their professional duties’ execution.

While referring to the financial control, additional attention should be paid to the fact that the budgets are the form of cybernetic control. The process of budget running is constant, and it is common in ADNEC to cover the same period by the budget year because the outcome usually corresponds to the financial results as compared to the budget.

In ADNEC, the budget process is divided into 4 parts - setting up the budget (1); following the budget (2); conducting an analysis of financial activity of the enterprise (3) and its usage (4).

While referring to the operational control in ADNEC, additional attention should be paid to the fact that constant control over the quality of the product s is conducted because the core success factor of this company is a high quality products for affordable price. To conclude this section, it is essential to put an emphasis on the fact that currently, in the era of high technological developments, the control is mainly based on the formation system. This allows the top management of this business entity to assess the results of the business performance of ADNEC and to set the new strategies in the case of deviations.

Performance as a Result of Proper Job Design and Employees’ Job Satisfaction in Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company

The core purpose of job design is the job satisfaction, through-put and quality improvement, employees and problems minimization, such as absenteeism or grievances.

A job design, which is also named as the work design, is the specification of the established methods, contents, and relationship for satisfaction of the organizational and technological requirements alongside with the personal holder job and social requirements. The core principles of job design theory are geared towards the way the job of a person affects the behavior and attitudes towards labor activities and is particularly related to the set of characteristics, such as autonomy and variety.

Regarding human relations, the job design theory is considered as social and businesses systems, where the productivity is significantly impacted by the emotional and psychological factors, influencing significantly on the productivity of the employees.

Therefore, the set of the following trends are implied by practical application of job design theory for the employees’ productivity improvement and performance enhancement:

  1. Properly organized human relations may improve the performance;
  2. Managers should consider the opinions of their employees regarding the issues influencing on the staff;
  3. Democratic rather than authoritarian leadership style;
  4. Psychological and social reward motivation – employees should not be treated as the “economic animals”;
  5. Wide application of the team working approach.
  6. Employee Empowerment (Sirota, 2006)

Porter and Lawler reviewed Vroom’s model refining each of the three elements. They suggest that the ability of employees to achieve performance levels is influenced by the way they view their job as well as their abilities and traits. Porter and Lawler also suggest that a distinction should be made between the values of employees regarding intrinsic and extrinsic rewards or outcomes. Payment rewards may be considered as the motivator, but the empirical evidence for assisting individual employee performance is weak. (Turk, 2007)

McClelland’s theory of work motivation is principally based on the significance of achievement. He identifies the following socially developed motives: need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation. However, the views achievements are the most critical to a country’s economic growth and success. Based on empirical research, McClelland identifies four characteristics of people with strong need for achievement moderate task flexibility, personal responsibility for performance, need for feedback and innovativeness.

Employees have the following needs: physiological, the conditions for survival, such as food and drink, safety and security, physical and psychological protection, belonging to the society, a sense of affiliation, friendship and affection, ego and esteem, self-respect and recognition, self-actualization self-fulfillment, achievement and growth. This list of needs constitutes a hierarchy, and if one need is met, it ceases to motivate. Therefore, the implication is that the management must provide rewards that meet these needs.

Alderfer concentrates on the employee’s existence needs (linking to physical well-being), relatedness needs (related to the attachment and belonging, good relations, accurate feedback), and growth needs (associated with development). They are presented as a continuum from concrete, existing needs to the less concrete, growing ones. If growing needs are difficult to fulfill, the employee may start to fulfill relatedness needs.

The five job characteristics can be combined to form a motivational score which could be used to predict the employee’s behaviors and attitudes. The theory explains that motivation is linked to the three psychological states. When employees feel that the labor is important for them and they can relate to it, the work itself becomes motivating rather than just a task to be completed. Meaningfulness of work could be linked to intrinsic motivation leading to higher employee job performance (Forster, 2005).

Responsibility is experienced when the individual is given freedom for the decision making process. The knowledge of outcomes serves mainly for two purposes: to convey the results of the employees’ work and enable them in such manner to learn from their mistakes. The second is to connect them to the customers of their output, thus adding further purpose for their work.

Each of the three psychological states is, in turn, derived from the five job characteristics. Meaningful work depends on the way the employee’s contribution affects the overall effectiveness of the organization which could derived from skill variety including the ability to use employee’s skills and talents. Secondly, task identity identified with the current task, allowing an individual to see their work as whole and complete, which will increase the work pride. Task significance identifies how the work can be considered as contributing to something wider and for the benefit of the society. It includes autonomy which explains the extent to which the job allows substantial freedom and independence to an employee in their work scheduling or the procedures to be implemented. Feedback provides awareness of how an employee’s effort is being converted to performance. Feedback can derive from the job itself or from other people.

When all three psychological states are met, enhanced motivation will be reached leading to better job performances. Therefore, the theory explains that by knowing the critical key job characteristics, one is able to design and redesign jobs, to increase the performances, and to measure them (Dalakoura, 2010)

Evidence has shown that job redesign is based on the employees’ performance leading to the improvement of three psychological states. Moreover, such trend has a positive impact on the level of job satisfaction. However, evidence is much weaker where the relationship between job redesign and intrinsic motivation is concerned. Job redesign initiatives are not effective regarding raising levels of motivation (Kelly, 2002). Therefore, it is possible to make an assumption that satisfaction and motivation do not share the same set of determinants. What satisfies employees will not necessarily motivate them; therefore, the performance measurement is needed. Nevertheless, there are instances in which job redesign leads to the increased performance; even if there has been no increase in intrinsic motivation.

The explanation to what causes performance gains if it is not caused by higher levels of motivation can be found in Kelly’s twin-track model. In the job characteristics model there are several ways in which the redesign of jobs can impact on employee performance, where there is only one improvement in intrinsic motivation. Kelly’s model considers the wider range of ways in which job redesign can affect the performances not included in the job characteristics model. The assessment of Kelly’s twin-track model shows that performance improvements occur in the situation when the workers were expecting a pay increase following the redesign initiative. Higher work performance was, therefore, generated by the expectations of subsequent higher pay.

A second issue concerns the fact that if a job redesign initiative involves a change of workflow or work layout which results in a reduction in the amount of downtime, the considerable improvements in the performance are possible without any changes in levels of motivation. It is the case when the workflow becomes more organized. (Kelly, 2002)

The theoretical models of leadership styles including performance appraisal will be classified into two broad categories: non-rational approaches and rational ones. Discussion is also focused on gender differences when providing performance feedback.

The literature review elaborated in this chapter includes Adams’s equity theory based on the notion of exchange, the view that employees expect certain outcomes in return to providing particular contributions. The theory seeks to strike a fair balance between inputs into jobs and compares the outputs of one’s situation. The workers are also influenced by the colleagues and friends while benchmarking their responses in relations to their own ratio of inputs to outputs (Shore, 2012).

The contemporary content theories mentioned in this research are study by the leadership theorists, and it is possible to make a statement that the goal setting in a theory results in better team performance. Goal setting theory involves an aim that is not easily attained but challenging enough to motivate the team members to push and achieve the goal within their capability. Managers setting goals for their team require their skills. The reason is that setting targets that are easy to attain becomes not challenging and will not motivate the team members to achieve better results. However, if the goals are set too high and the team members can never achieve it, they will soon be de-motivated and give up.

Manager and team leaders may have planned performance appraisals. The setting of the appraisal can be informal or formal. However informal performance appraisals usually relate to the job and daily activities. The objective of the appraisal has to be clear, as it will give a fruitful outcome. The objective of any appraisal can be achieved if there is a goal, period for the improvement and permanent job feedbacks. Managers and leaders continue to monitor the performance after providing systematic feedback. Reviewing performance with team members and meeting to discuss the review of the appraisal provides them with information regarding the level they have achieved after the last appraisal review. This helps in assisting the team member to monitor and achieve the desired outcomes discussed in the appraisal review.

Group Decision Making as a Tool of Quality Control and Assurance in in Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company and its Branches

Ability of making the effective decisions may be considered as the defining attribute of the organization’s high performance. The core challenge in this case implies ensuring the fact that the entire organization is permeated by the good decision-making practices and measuring the scopes of this permeating. As the process of organizations’ expansion occurs, the employees have to make the decisions in the ambiguous, increasingly complex, and uncertain environment.

Formal practices provide the employees with an option of making decisions, which are essential for the stakeholders of an organization and guide their behaviors for aligning with the strategic intent of the firm, its norms, and values.

It is essential to refer to the fact that while using the formal decision-making practice in the ADNEC Group, the top management relies on the control and delegation practices for ensuring that the decisions made by the personnel correspond to the vision and values of the organization. In the case of applying the described approach to the practice of the branch of ADNEC Group – ExCel London Exhibition, the core attention of the employees and top management of an organization is focused on the relevant control levels. In such case the time of personnel and of CEOs is used for learning and interaction rather than for controlling the process of decision making and its effectiveness.

Furthermore, more relevant decision-making practices are applied to the practice as well as expensive and extensive projects of performance management being abandoned in favor of more focused and differentiated initiatives of ExCel London Exhibition These, in turn, support the immediate goals of an organization and have the direct impact on its effective performance of the whole ADNEC Group.

The next issue to be discussed in the scope of this section is the proper coordination of the team decision-making in ADNEC Group.

First of all, the core reason for complicity of decision-making in groups is vagueness of the means and goals necessary for their achievement. In such manner, the establishment of these goals and means becomes an essential component of the decision-making task. Individual goals’ reconciliation into the group one and individual task representations matching to the shared task of the mental model should be achieved and create the basis for the common work.

Secondly, the requirements to the information are very high in majority of cases due to unequal distribution of the initial information (in ADNEC Group. and its branches). The final decision becomes possible only in the cases when the information is shared and integrated among the members of the group. The core reason for such statement is the fact that such qualities as the reconciliation, inherent clarification, and integration of the information assist the proper coordination of the group decision making. (Arrow, McGrath & Berdahl, 2000)

While considering the fact that the majority of decision-making teams have the experts in different areas, it is logically to assume that all of them have different points of view and understanding of a particular problem or issue. Therefore, in such case, sharing some information cannot be considered as sufficient approach towards the group decision making. Moreover, there is a need for reconciling the essence of the discussed and shared information.

The third aspect is that the demand for evaluation is high due to the fact that there is no way of determining the correctness of some decisions objectively. Therefore, there is a need for discussing different individual preferences, opinions, and criteria for evaluation. (Boos & Sassenberg, 2001). In addition, there is a need for clarifying the initial unclearness of information.

While considering the complexity of the task, the facilitation requirements towards the group decision-making are also high. The core reason for such trend is not only the information content complexities, but also the set of hierarchical and social information sources.

While discussing the coordination, it is essential to define this term. Espinosa, Lerch & Kraut (2004) have defined the coordination as task-dependent management of group assignments, resources, and members interdependencies, which regulate the information flow and actions.

In accordance with the practical application of the group coordination, it is possible to state that it is conducted via implicit or explicit mechanisms. Explicit coordination may be defined as the mechanisms which are intentionally applied for coordination purposes. These mechanisms are expressed in an unequivocal way and, therefore, leave few doubts, concerning their underlying purpose. In majority of cases, the explicit behavior coordination is executed through the written or verbal communication means.

Nevertheless, the core meanings of implicit coordination may be neither conclusive and clear nor observable by all members of the group. The coordination in this case is reached on default through adjustment and anticipation. For example, in the process of discussion, task-relevant information may be explained by the group members of Excel London Exhibition without being requested by Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company. Therefore, it is possible to state that the accurate shared mental models of procedure and task of a particular decision is required by the effective implicit coordination.


To conclude, it is essential to put an emphasis on the fact that measuring the employee’s performance may be considered an effective tool in the management of Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Company and its branches due to the set of the following reasons: it provides the employer or top manager of the business entity with an option of assessing the effectiveness of each particular employee and, furthermore, to apply the outcomes of such assessment for the human resource strategy improvement. Among the weak points of such managerial approach it is possible to consider the fact that the employees may have lack of trust and confidence in the case of their performance is constantly measured.

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