Humanities: Questions and Answers
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Human lifestyles and activities differ from one lace to another and from one generation to another. People’s practices and beliefs differ from one historical time to another, thus it is very difficult to conceptualize and relate them. Therefore, this essay is an analysis of historical perspectives about humanity, virtues, and notable differences in values, activities and artistic knowledge.
Roman’s devotion to duty, patriotism, and sacrifice, love of country, hard work, and sports were entrenched in the relations and dedication among people. Romans argue that warm relationship in the workplace is a secret of good results when performing various duties. Cordial relationship between the junior employees and their senior supervisor is important according to Romans and shows persistent devotion to duty. On the other hand, they stressed on the significance of patriotism, because its application in the workplace might lead to tremendous growth of the company.
The Romans also devoted themselves to love of country because it led to happiness of the majority of people. Love of their country ensured that Romans protected the territorial borders and natural resources that were available in the country to achieve happiness among the ordinary citizens. Indeed, happiness is the ultimate goal that all human beings wish to achieve. They also argued that all the activities done by ordinary people in the country were supposed to bring happiness to humanity. Moreover, they believed in sacrifice for nationhood, especially in relation to the work that people did. In the same way, they postulate that hard work should bring joy to man and not vice-versa. In brief, the ideologies of Roman’s devotion to hard work are related to the arguments advanced by the best places to work. They demonstrate practical ways of maintaining good working relationship and hard work to achieve performance goals.
When virtues are employed in a workplace, there must be a corresponding positive performance within the company. The Romans are also devoted to sports as a way of bringing different categories of people together. Sports enhance unity and peaceful co-existence among ordinary people, thereby minimizing potential conflicts.
In comparison with the present day attitudes of citizens to the same qualities, it is apparent that the devotion to sports, love of country, duty, patriotism, and hard work has advanced. However, people’s devotion to sacrifice has gown down significantly because many people are preoccupied with personal issues and cannot capitulate for the sake of others.
I believe that an average citizen feels that virtue is a habit disposed towards a certain action and intentional choice that is at the means relative to individuals. It is not just an isolated activity, but a well acting habit hence a duty. For an action to be worthy, an individual must perform a duty intentionally by knowing that whatever he/she does is a dignified action (Audi, Katz, Williamson, & Weiner, 1995). In every situation, the worthy is definitely a means between two extremes. Prudence during performing a duty is vital for ethical virtue since the intellectual value determines behavior.
In terms of honor, bravery of a citizen earns him/her respect. A brave person is the one who have no fears and faces what he/she should for the right reason, in the accurate manner and at the relevant time (Audi et al., 1995). Citizens feel that a brave man is a man who does his actions for the sake of what is noble. Aristotle asserts that a brave man is the one who is fearless when faced with a noble death. Temperance is another virtue related to bodily pleasures and honor. The intemperate person longs for pleasurable things and likes them because they are pleasurable and he is hurt when he fails to get what he wants.
I believe the average citizens feel that the love of country could lead to cohesion among people living in country. For instance, a person who loves his/her country will do all the things possible to protect the integrity of the country. He/she will also take good care of the country’s resources by avoiding overexploitation to make them sustainable (Audi et al., 1995). This would ensure that the country’s resources meet the needs of the present and future generations.
Munificence is another virtue of love, which Aristotle has described as a spirit of giving large amounts for relevant occasions (Audi et al., 1995). The opposite of this virtuous act is meanness and too much of it is the ostentation. Citizens feel that a munificent person spends lavishly and gladly. He/she is always calculating the cost, and his/her lavish spending is always for a noble reason. In this regard, I believe that our virtues include good manners, honor, respect, magnanity, love, and prudence.
The Greek and Romans had varying views about the world, body and soul, the after-life, and national ambitions. In terms of their worldview, the Greeks believed that the world was full of unlimited happiness and optimism, whereas the Romans viewed the world as antagonistic and full of challenges. When translated into Greek the word happiness means living well or blessedness. The Greek philosophers have postulated that blessedness is a type of activity, but not a statistic condition of being, and the world is full of such activities. According to Audi et al. (1995), Aristotle argued that to discover the nature of human happiness in the world, it is important to verify the function of a human being. This is because an individual’s happiness is directed towards fulfilling the natural functions in the world. The natural function must be something specific and essential to humanity. The Romans believed that the world has limited opportunities that people struggle to acquire, thus it is potential to constant conflict.
In terms of the body and soul, the Greeks believed that a person is mainly an intellect in his or her own, and that his or her body is mortal while the soul is immortal. They both shared a belief that the desiring and spirited parts of human soul are significant. A person’s identity is determined by considering the rational portion of the soul, manifested by the body. Intellectual activity is the one that only human beings can perform.
In terms of after-life, the Greeks believed that a human ceases to exist when he/she dies. On the other hand, the Romans believed in the after-life where after death the righteous soul lives forever and the sinful soul torments forever.
According to the Greek philosophers, intellectualism is an activity of the higher part of the soul that creates national ambitions through rationality (Audi et al., 1995). Happiness and rationality of human is therefore found in the activity of the human soul, and the pinnacle of human life consists of the expectations of the greatest and undisputable goods, manifested through the body.
The historical statement: “It is in its art forms that mankind leaves the purest images of its most profoundly held beliefs” has a significant meaning to the past, contemporary and future society. The interpretation of this statement may vary, depending on the historical time that the interpreter refers to. For instance, it could mean that humanity have sets of believes that form a significant part of human lifestyle. During the rest of the period, the beliefs become the motivating factor and shape human life and decision. Fulfilling the beliefs makes life enjoyable and complete, making them becomes part of a person. The beliefs are vivid and pure in the person’s memory and he/she hopes that it is essential to inform the current and future generation about them. Therefore, he/she uses art to create a clear image about the belief and/or sets of beliefs to inform the present and future generation.
The statement is a manifestation that humanity uses art forms such as drawing, painting or narrative to create an image about the beliefs and belief system of the present society. Although the art form contains original ideas of the author and beliefs that he intended to portray, the correct meaning is his preserve. This means that people only postulate the meanings of such art forms; hence, there are variations in their interpretation.
In conclusion, the essay presented historical perspectives related to humanity, virtues, and notable differences in values, activities, and artistic knowledge that different groups embraced. The Greeks and Romans had notable differences in beliefs and lifestyle, thus they embraced unique practices, based on the historical time. Virtues guided the behavior and practices of people in the society.