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Faculty Awareness about Evidence-Based Practice



General Definition of Statement

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has a varied definition in nursing practice, but according to Prior, Wilkinson, and Neville (2010) it generally means the integration of the best research evidence compounded with clinical expertise and patient values in the society. On the other hand, Van Schoonhoven defines the concept as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the best current evidence which is available in the decision-making process. The decisions made should be applicable to the individual patients; above all the optimality of the evidences is core (Herdman & NANDA international, 2011). Evidence-based learning process depicts that learning is a form of partnership whereby the faculty, the patients and the students interact. The role of the faculty or instructors is to assist the learners in the clarification of some of the concepts, problem identification and solving as well as the development of personal strengths that are necessary for competence in the nursing practice (Lippincott & Wilkins, 2009).

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EBP is a form of social cultural interaction that postulates on manifestation of responsibility and professional practice in healthcare profession. In the analysis of EBP, Kyrkjeb? & Hanestad (2009) depict that EBP is a contentious model that makes the use of best available evidence in decision making process. It is essentially a problem solving architecture that aims at clinical practice and administrative aspects that integrate systematic search for the most relevant and evident answers to clinical questions, utilization of clinical experience, values and preferences of the patients. Generally EBP can be described as a technique that allows a nurse to carry out an assessment of the clinical guidelines and researches and more information basing them on high quality findings that are relevant and applicable to the results in the practice.

Introduction

This paper provides a clear and critical analysis on evidence-based practice (EBP) in nursing. It clearly depicts EBP as adopted by nurses and its relevance in the nursing fraternity. EBP helps nurses to make informed decisions on the quality of the services they offer, it is very crucial to base judgments and formulate decisions based on the use of EBP as compared to the traditional methods. By doing this, it improves the health care system as it basically facilitates and ensures consistency in decision making process. According to Prior et al. (2010), the system helps nurses to make informed decisions based on up to date technology thereby ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in the practice (Herdman & NANDA international, 2011).

EBP is the right channel towards achieving fully functional nursing services. Each of the techniques imparted on these nurses is a clear functional criterion which will spearhead the whole process of efficiency and effectiveness. Most times, patients will have beneficial and improved outcomes where the EBP mechanism has been utilized which typically gives maximum results on different topologies in the practice. By doing this, the different preferences of an individual and the entire society are addressed (Hoffmann, Bennet & Del Mar, 2010).

Prior, Wilkinson, and Neville (2010) considered that quantitative analysis was the start incarnation to formulate a robust and quantitative question which was intended to provide a clear cut direction to the literature search. This study suggests that a strong question corresponds to the research technique; it also touches on methods used for research, the interactions and the general outcomes of interests. In addition, tt is evident that there are three aspects of consideration namely search of relevant evidence, decision on whether the evidence is strongly imparted in the group in question and the selection of strong evidences from weaker ones. Nursing context is an approach towards problem solving, hence, can be adapted to any research field; it frames around patients and the entire population, nursing approach, comparison and control of the practices adopted and the expected outcome from the study. The study illustrates people or population of interest as the study objects, students studying anaesthetic practice (Hoffmann, Bennet & Del Mar, 2010).

Intervention also means some attributes or aspects of the people which is the major object of the study; it can best be referred to the independent variable. The intervention could be an active approach to a specific group, for example provision of simulation which can be a passive characteristic to another group, experienced nurses and fresh graduates. In epidemiologists, this can be termed as exposure which depicts two groups which are being compared to one another; it is the difference in the characteristics which is portrayed by two groups in a study (Hoffmann, Bennet & Del Mar, 2010).

A group of students are taught via the virtual learning environment and another group undertakes their lessons via class room setting where the tutor attends the class physically. Thus, comparison can be described as a relational procedure of trying to formulate similarities and differences between the two groups. Further practical outcomes of the two groups are compared; the depicted outcome is the resultant measure which is used to assess the intervention effects this most of times is referred to as the dependent variable (Chummun & Tiran, 2008). This paper employs a research utilization mechanism where different results obtained are sieved and selected for application. In evidence-based research, nurses are allowed to select the best evidence they deem right which can be analyzed and effectively be integrated in the system. Another key method which is highly borrowed by Prior is questioning and examination of scientific literature which is in line with the nursing practice (Chummun & Tiran, 2008).

Literature Review

Background History of EBP

In the year 2000, NCSBN was compelled to provide evidence that was to support the education regulations and rules of the standards upheld. Almost the same time, IOM was scrutinizing the medical errors that accrued in the health care and the best alternate ways to improve the quality of healthcare provision. Hence, in 2002 the practice, regulation and education in Congruence (PERC) committee that was responsible for the projection of the future needs of nursing boards postulated that NCSBN was to give concrete evidence to support their education systems, rules and regulations they upheld (Smith & Crawford, 2013). In 2002 and 2003, NCBSN carried out a survey on new nurses and how they were trained and educated on their programs. Consequently the employers were interviewed on their perceptions of the new nurses and how they felt on the levels of competence exemplified by the nurses (AMSN, 2013).

In 2003, IOM came to the conclusion that there was no evidence-based teaching method in the nursing curriculum. NCSBN responded to this report by changing the Practice, Regulation and Education committee (PR&E) and developed EBP. PR&E reviewed the nursing education system to take into perspective the requirements postulated by the regulators. In collaboration with the NCSBN’s researchers, PR&E conducted a review of major elements that needed the attention of professional education systems in nursing (Smith & Crawford, 2013). To create awareness on the new developments that galvanized nursing, PR&E decided to hold a forum at the intercontinental hotel of approximately 30 people most of whom were nurses. In addition, the PR&E held a diverse national representation of all the nursing and health care experts were the findings of the board were outlined to various stakeholders. Data from prior NCSBN’s researches was discussed in detail and ideas were shared across all the attendants to chant the way forward.

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Overview of Teaching EBP

In order to attain the leadership requirements of EBP in learning institutions, students are required to be placed with clinical teaching associates and managers. The faculty representatives are required to identify the relevant problems and, at the same time, carry out an examination and synthesize program that will be able to lead to the identification of clinical problems. Essentially, the faculty is the resource to evidence-based approach in nursing practice settings. Nursing profession revolves around the strategies that cement on EBP and touch on the previous knowledge of the students with the aim of enhancing knowledge and skills (Greenhalgh, 2010).

Use of Evidence-Based Elements of Nursing

Evidence-based elements of nursing are those traits or characteristics of the curriculum that galvanize the teaching methodologies in a way such that they are significantly associated by better learning approaches. According to a report by PR&E Committee and NCSBN researches on EBP, each element of study is effectively documented and supported by source and a given level of research. For instance, level I research is based on a strong support of the source material, this level takes into consideration properly randomized and controlled trials and meta-analysis and systematic reviews of the data. Level II research becomes the second strongest level with an inclusion of quasi experimental and professional standards. Level III is the weakest level among all the three levels of research and it mainly takes into consideration the expert opinions and consensus statements that do not require heavy support (Smith & Crawford, 2013).

Evidence-based nursing is subject to review each year by the PR&E committee and the changes are made depending on the data outcomes of the nursing education system. Therefore, nursing education is a continuous process that is keenly monitored by PR&E to ensure that the best is achieved in health care provision in the society. According to Prior, evidence-based elements were branched into five key areas that include adjunctive methods of teaching, assimilation nursing role, actual patient deliberate practices, methodologies of teaching and student faculty associations (AMSN, 2013). Adjunctive teaching methodology, simulation use and the combination of online strategies coupled up with traditional strategies included the highest research level whereby the research was supposed to adopt simulation use strongly.

Faculty student interaction is a very important component since it channels the online learning process. Online program strategies are very important since they evaluate and emancipate a clear understanding of the subject content. Faculty student interaction is a framework that opens up the comprehension scope of the students and allows the faculty to point the strong and weak areas of the students. An assimilation of new nurses into the role of nursing is a gear that encourages improvement and transition of the program more emphatically when specialty is taken into perspective. According an NCSBN research, nurses working as a team tend to provide quality output as compared to individual nurses working separately. The research goes further to depict that student with experience of delegation of tasks and supervisory skills build a stronger relationship with their colleagues. It is through these relationships they learn how and when to call a physician. The evidence postulated by NCSBN depicts that students have an opportunity to gain time and comfort in their roles as nurses (Chummun & Tiran, 2008).

EBP success is founded on the faculty interactions with students; PR&E illustrate that qualified faculty members can lead to a success of nurse training and suggests that all the faculty members must be very knowledgeable and comprehend all the strategies that need applicability in the field. Further the committee goes on to depict that nursing programs ought to be a good ration of full time faculty who are responsible for teaching clinical and didactic courses with an addition of part time and adjunct faculty members in the sector.

Application of the CURN Research Model

The first step of the EBP emancipation is the CURN model which is introduced to students during the learning process. The CURN model is keenly reviewed by the faculty led student discussion about several steps that include the identification of the clinical problem, evaluation of the evidence based knowledge in regard to the identified clinical problem, a concrete evidence of the setting, transformation of knowledge, outcomes specifications and evaluation of outcomes and modifications of the nursing practice. The model is enhanced by the interaction between the students and the lecturers who correlate to achieve understandability of the subject area. The most critical segment of EBP is the identification of the clinical problem. Thus, it is crucial for nurses to work with faculty members to identify clinical problems in the particular setting they are subjected (Darton Nursing Division, 2013).

Using Change/Diffusion Theory

Lewin’s model becomes the basis of learning change in classroom setting, Rogers’s innovation decision model and theories that touch on planned change also effect on the reading and classroom learning. Faculty members need to take into consideration the learning progress of the nurses either by encouraging classroom discussion or personal development. Students work with Faculty members to discuss the total planned change as well as postulating on the way forward in accomplishment of professional healthcare provisions.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion

Areas that are flagged for future analysis include the possibility of the provision of access to information that will lead to identification of the problems that will enhance future self-directed learning and continued remediation application. Additionally, an increased focus to building and strengthening of the safety requirements or information to the students is very essential for healthcare professional analysis. EBP is an agglomerate of numerous factors that have not been fully exploited in the learning institutions. Thus, it is crucial to undertake the responsibility of ensuring that they are all keenly addressed and construed to improve student development (Prior, Wilkinson & Neville, 2010).

Evidence-based nursing practice is an ongoing practice that takes into consideration the changing trends in the learning process of the nurses in the society. Thus, it is crucial for PR&E to continuously review the process to take into consideration the changes that may be needed. There is a need for every nursing institution to adopt EBP since it leads to a clearer comprehension of the subject matter and problem identification process which is actually the most important aspect in nursing. Nursing divisions across the world believe that the best practice of achieving patient care is education that is centered on the patients themselves and not on the general framework as it was before. Patient centered learning process requires teamwork and collaboration that is geared towards evidence-based practice and safety or quality improvement mechanisms in hospitals (AMSN, 2013).

At Darton State College, students are taught on the best practices that will offer them a platform of identifying the problems and ensuring safety and competency in the healthcare provision. According to Darton faculty department, it is believed that the patient’s own values need to be considered and depicted in the plan of care throughout the entire program. The Faculty goes further to state that team work is a very important component when it comes to EBP structured learning program, it is for a reason that students get to learn to collaborate with each other and enhance the learning process. EBP is platform that leads towards ensuring that the students create a better and safer environment (Darton Nursing Division, 2013).

EBP is a step wise process that requires collaboration between the faculty members and the students. Just as depicted in the prior section, the faculty will need to come up with a draft or model of conducting the learning process. This will need to take into consideration the desires and efforts of the students for the process to be successful. According to research conducted by Prior on EBP, it is evident that EBP is the turning point in nursing on healthcare provision. This is because the foundation calls for specific analytical programs on each patient and no generalizations are allowed. It is essentially a patient centered provision that illuminates on the core segments of the health care provision.

Recommendations

EBP is the best practice and a solution to a number of problems experienced in the world. It is for a reason that it takes a more specific approach. However, it is recommended that for the practice to be effective leadership and management aspects from faculty members ought to be taken into consideration. Faculty members need to be the individuals who regulate the learning process and construe all the processes to their students. Managerial skills need also be trained in all the nurse learning institutions, this will be very important since they will offer a foundation for decision making process while on professional duties. Finally, it is crucial to emancipate the learners to adopt a team work culture.

Performance Improvement Concern

This study was conducted with an aim of establishing a concrete foundation of improving healthcare provision in the society. Over the years we have experienced numerous problems that mainly lead us to the same direction of poor service delivery from healthcare nurses. To curb such problems it is important to consider a different approach in the learning process. Hence, this paper calls for a different review of handling things and getting off the traditional scope of teaching and learning and instead adopt a more recent and revised methodology. An approach that calls for collaboration between students and the faculty members are the present trends in the nursing learning institutions. Students are to be introduced in an environment that offers exploration capability by so doing they will be able to explore the policies and procedures and the current issues that galvanize the topic of study assigned to them by their tutors.

For instance, according to UTHSCSA (a nursing school), EBP can be applied in the calculation of possible errors that may accrue in the medication process. Thus, according to one faculty member EBP is a model that is channeled to assess the organizational leadership structure and quality and enhancing safety by instigating collaboration of evidence-based practices as a measure of addressing the human factor in medical provision. The process is responsible for the unification of the curricular focus and it is a first time representation of the faculty competence and evidence based ability (Kyrkjeb? & Hanestad, 2009). EBP is responsible for the establishment of the system wide changes, barrier illumination and the creation of cohesion in nursing development in the society. These factors make EBP an important analytic and discussion topic.

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