Deforestation of rainforests has become a challenging issue during the last decades. Such forests exist in some parts of America, Australia, and Asia. Rainforests occupy big territories of land and have various species, i.e. plants and animals. These unique locations with large amounts of land acres have undergone serious problems of degradation in some parts of the world. Primarily, rainforests with their wet and hot climate were extremely favorable for harvesting, flowering, and fruiting all the year-round, but during the last twenty years, there is an alarm for the rainforest degradation and deforestation.
For example, Indonesian rainforests are the most extensive in Asia that have overcome the great changes lately because of the growing economy and the increase of population. According to the statement in the Guinness Book of Records (124), Indonesia is the country with the highest rate of deforestation. To cope with the problems of the rainforest degradation, it is important to identify the problems, to find the way how to manage the situation now and in the future, describe the options of alleviating the problems, and find the proper resolution for them.
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Deforestation: Identification of the Problem
According to Butler (24), Brazil is the first country in the world of deforestation. The country is losing millions of virgin forests annually due to the purposes of logging firms and investors looking for higher profits. The Greenpeace organization, in its annual reports, states about the threat of the rainforest degradation in Brazil and Indonesia, as well as in other countries and appeals for the mankind to take care of the flora and fauna. Besides, deforestation could have very dangerous consequences in the future and make a social conflict to gain control over income-generating resources.
To solve the problem, it is important to identify the problem itself and, therefore, this essay will be of great importance for the future solution of the situation and its consequences. Climate change, pulpwood, human interference, and environmental pollution are the main factors of rainforest degradation and deforestation in the world. The well-known cause of forest loss and deforestation is logging for tropical timbers and pulpwood.
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Impacts of Deforestation
The research asserts that deforestation is one of the major causes of climate change. The process of deforestation in different areas of the world releases a huge amount of carbon into the atmosphere, which leads to the greenhouse effect. As a result, forest degradation reduces the number of species. Deforestation is double damaging for the existence of human life on earth (Spilsbury, 42). The research asserts that Russian and Canadian forests occupy the huge territories, and consist of forty percent of the total carbon stocks.
In brief, deforestation as a security threat is a complicated problem, which requires serious awareness for the world authorities and environmentalists. There may be many possible connections between environmental degradation and security. The world authorities are not sure that separate countries can deal with local problems on their own.
Due to different resources and estimations, humans are the main reason for deforestation. The human activities that damage forests, their flora, and fauna are as follows: logging, agriculture, mining in forest areas, construction of villages, farms, and roads, etc. tropical countries, like Indonesia and Brazil, are losing millions of hectares of forests each year (Lindsey 35). Most logging industries in the forests are illegal; this makes it difficult for the government and the Greenpeace organization to control them. Deforestation is the main result of building and firewood.
Agriculture in the rainforests is also one of the reasons for deforestation. Farmers have removed thousands of miles of rainforests for agricultural purposes. According to Butler (28), poor farmers are using slash and burn to clear land in the forest. The forest farmers, who are mainly not educated, do not think about the environment and the problems they have made. Their only desire is to get the harvest and to feed their families or sell the food on the market. That is not the reason to lose such tremendous parts of national wealth (Butler, 41). The local governments must take care of the environment and feed its citizens without losing national wealth like rainforests, which are unique and rare on the earth.
Another serious and dangerous cause of losing rainforests is mining activities, especially in Borneo, Indonesia. Now the damage for rainforests in Borneo has resulted in the massive erosion silting up rivers and led to catastrophic flooding. Mining activities contribute to the degradation of Indonesian rainforests in Papua, Sulawesi, and Sumatra, though there are some efforts to rehabilitate mining (Lindsey, 37).
The road construction is another reason for deforestation and degradation. The construction of highways in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Papua, and Sulawesi led to the forest destruction in many areas. The construction of roads gives access for poor people to exploit the forest land illegally. Therefore, the countries, like Brazil and Indonesia, are losing thousands of hectares of rainforests that leads to its degradation. The effects of deforestation are widespread, including soil erosion, reduced flora and fauna, irregular river flows, and others.
Greenpeace and the world authorities are searching for options to stop deforestation in the wet areas of the world. To protect rainforests from degradation, local governments must provide new options for problem resolution. Regulations and applicable laws can guide human efforts in solving these problems nationally and internationally (Soros, 12). The governments must establish specific goals and report each year on their progress in the media. All the pulp and paper industries must have legal certifications to provide business in the areas of rainforests. The proper planning and control of the industries, their manufacture, and goals can prevent the catastrophe in the future and achieve the problem resolution.
Obviously, the authorities must protect the rights of indigenous people and give penalties to illegal owners, farmers, and workers. The Greenpeace organization has a great experience in protecting the environment and its strong enough to help Indonesia to identify the best time for the problem resolution. Thus, it is quite reasonable to find options that would not discriminate native people, but, on the other hand, will regulate the laws upon industries.
According to the Greenpeace annual report (2009 30), it is obvious that deforestation of tropical rainforests, for example in Indonesia and Brazil, can cause huge problems in the environment in the future due to the harmful activities of the people, who do not think about its protection. But still, there are huge numbers of people on every continent not willing to accept the situation with the unscrupulous corporation and deforestation.
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The global movement against deforestation takes place in different parts of the world with the aim to protect the environment. Progressive people realize the importance of this movement and governments of such highly developed countries as the USA, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, and others who appeal to the worldwide community to dedicate their efforts to protect the rainforests on the earth, human rights, and social development.
The regulations, however, need some further enforcement measures, including the environmental aspects like reforestation and protection of rainforest in policymaking, which will change the existing situation over the next decades. It is important to mention, that the Law needs good coordination and management in order to have better results for the protection of the rainforests.
A variety of measures, like strict monitoring and control, will change the approach to the environmental problem and protection of rainforests, making them issues of the essential importance over the next twenty years. The Indonesian government must prevent rainforest degradation by stopping the issue with some more licenses for the forest and peatland clearance. They must also review activities and territories, where licenses have been already handed out.
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The rainforest degradation on the world wetland is the result of rising population density and growing demand for the arable land. Nowadays, there is a demanding need to protect rainforests and soil from death. The national and local governments are trying to find options to solve the problem and protect rainforests in the future. According to different sources, the main problem is a hungry population and intensive commercial logging. In most areas, where deforestation is observed, one can see forest fires and soil erosion. Massive forest fires destroy flora and fauna that inevitably leads to the environmental disaster. Most forests are not protected by the government and there is very little effort in reforestation.
Indonesia`s deforestation rate, for example, is the highest in Southern Asia during last decades, approximately one million hectares per year. These threatened figures make an alarm to the world authorities to protect rainforests from degradation and destructions. There is a hope that certain government programs will help to overcome the problem in the future and develop a forestry management plan. Some environmentalists insist on the introduction of an environmental court and others propose to strengthen the environmental criminal law.