The linguistic classification of English speakers from the Outer Circle nations, such as Singapore, Malaysia and India, is usually vague, since the types of English they speak are considered by many individuals as different from inter-languages; however, they are not considered as English native varieties. This research paper will make an argument about sending the UAE students to study in the Outer Circle countries. It will concentrate on why high school graduates from the UAE should or should not be offered scholarships in the Outer Circle countries. This is because the type of English that is being taught in the Outer Circle countries is not the same to what the students are being taught in the UAE schools. Besides, there should be the establishment of a policy, which will regulate the criteria of sending students to the Outer Circle countries. This paper will consist of the following sections: introduction, background, the UAE community attitude, analysis of the findings of the interview and conclusions.
Types of English
The modern English prototype is an appropriate framework to carefully assess the classification of English speakers worldwide. This prototype scrutinizes the functions and forms of English varieties outside the traditionally native perspectives such as Great Britain, Australia, the USA and Canada (Crystal, 2012). This type of framework is based on the literary works of Kachru and has risen to a great form of scholarship through the journals, for instance, the World English. Within this prototype, the research has concentrated basically on the institutionalized varieties of English, which are used together with other languages in other nations that were colonized by Great Britain such as India, Singapore, Kenya and Malaysia.
The history of institutionalized varieties of English in the new geographical and cultural perspectives is considerably long. They have numerous functions in the administrative, legal and local educational systems. The outcome of such kind of uses is that those varieties have resulted in a navitized conversation, as well as the style types and appropriately determined sublanguages. They are used as linguistic tools for creative writings in different genres. There are such kinds of uses on approximately all the continents (Sailaja, 2009). According to Kachru, the institutionalized varieties of English have been labeled as the second Diaspora English. The Inner Circle represents traditional foundations of English, which are mainly dominated by the “mother tongue” languages. In the Outer Circle countries, English as a language has been institutionalized as another language, while the Expanding Circle incorporates other parts of the world. In the Expanding Circle, English is being used as the main foreign language (Mahboob, 2010). To take responsibility for the presence of native speakers with different extent of expertise within the Outer Circle nations, Kachru narrates that within each community there is a cline of bilingualism. It means that there is a different variation according to functions and that various speakers use English in order to be proficient in the English language.
According to the model of Kathru, the Inner Circle speakers acquire the labels of native speakers (NSs) as well as the Expanding Circle speakers are generally considered as non-native speakers (NNSs); nevertheless, the classification of the institutionalized varieties of English speakers who live within the Outer Circle is vague. Even though clear arguments have illustrated that the types of English that they speak are different from the interlanguages in many ways. The speakers of these types of English are currently not characterized as NSs (Klimczak, 2013). Rather, these variety speakers are known as the non-native English speakers. The scholarships in new English has made positive steps in illustrating that these English varieties are not just a deficient version of the Inner Circle English by demonstrating the patterned and systematic techniques, in which such English diversity show variations. Nevertheless, the only thing that remains problematic is the acceptance and documentation of the linguistic inventions similar to the natural results of the perspective scenario, which is appropriate to the varieties, their users and uses. Thus, the fact that English has been accepted by many individuals that speak English in the Outer Circle countries have changed English by institutional and indigenizing it.
English of the Inner Circle is the language as it initially took shape and spread around the world with the first diaspora. Hence, the Inner Circle represents sociolinguistic and traditional bases of English in areas, where it is currently the primary language. On the other hand, English of the Outer Circle was produced by the second diaspora, which spread the English language through the majestic expansion of the language by Great Britain in Africa and Asia. The Outer Circle incorporated countries such as Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, India, Philippines, South Africa as well as Bangladesh. In the Outer Circle, the number of native English speakers approximately ranges between 150 and 300 million.
Lastly, the Expanding Circle includes nations, in which English does not play a governmental or historical role, however, where it is mainly utilized as the means of international communication. This circle consists of the rest of the population of the world, which are not outlined above: Korea, China, Japan, Russia, Indonesia, Egypt, and many more. It is not easy to assess the total number of people, who fall under the Expanding Circle, mainly due to the fact that English might be utilized for limited or precise reasons often in Business English (Moskowich, 2012). However, it is estimated that the amount of users falling under this group ranges between one million and one billion.
The Inner Circle is norm-providing. This means that the norms of the English language are developed in these nations. On the other hand, the Outer Circle is norm-developing. However, the Expanding Circle is norm-dependent, since it depends on the standards that are set by the English native speakers, who are falling under the Inner Circle.
Sending students to study in the Outer Circle countries would assist the UAE students to a considerable degree. First of all, students will be able to learn different cultures as well as the implications that different cultures bring in a cross-cultural conversation. This is because in such countries, students from different cultural backgrounds meet in schools. Students are able to learn from other communities and this has promoted people from different parts of the world to embrace one another and accept each other for what and who they are.
Besides, students will also be able to learn new communicative tactics that assist in successful cross-cultural communications. Such strategies that the students will benefit from include the accommodation of distinct sociolinguistic and linguistic norms as well as the variety of strategies which can be utilized when there is a misunderstanding. They are supported by the mutual desires to collaborate, cooperate and safeguard the face of students.
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Therefore, implementing the language of the Outer Circle countries would give several benefits to both students and their teachers for the implementation of this model. There is no student, either foreign or local, who would be required to aim at any unachievable target (Haigh, 2012). The usage of the Outer Circle model assists students, since the objective of the English language is to shift teachings. In targeting to learn English in several ways that would permit efficient communication across cultural and linguistic boundaries, the concentration of the classroom will be based on the acquisition of norms that are associated with the standard model to concentrate on the cultural information, communicative strategies as well as linguistic features that will enhance communication.
This technique is a good method, which is already developed in several multilingual settings. The bilingualism should be viewed as just a normal condition instead of a special condition. This means that by following the set standards, the objectives of students will be attained in a foreign country. This does not mean that the standards are substandard, but are just not the same. For similar reasons, students from other regions who are non-native English speakers need to be evaluated against the English standards that they speak. The teachings of English need to be framed within the objective of creating multilingual citizens. Similarly, shunning implementing a native English speaker shows that bilingualism should not be equated with learning about the American or British culture.
Besides, an additional research has demonstrated that a bilingual approach of learning English accommodates pragmatic and cultural norms that are not similar to the Anglo-American norms. For instance, the usage of face expressions, in which individuals appear to hinder the introduction of any topic in a discussion. The concentration on a cross-cultural communication is intrinsic in a bilingual technique that supports the Bamgbose’s communication of English globally, and it has to be viewed as per the codes as well as multilingual perspectives. Therefore, it is evident that the UAE students should be allowed to study in the Outer Circle countries. This will help them develop fully and learn many languages.
However, as it is normally said that whatever has advantages must have disadvantages. For instance, students should not be allowed to go to the Outer Circle countries since learning new languages is not an easy task, and students will be greatly affected. There are some students, who are low-learners, and therefore, they are not able to learn another language within a short span of time (Hall, 2008). Therefore, it is not essential for the UAE students to be sent to the Outer Circle countries, since it will not help them, whereas they have gotten used to their home curriculum. Besides, sending them away to the English native countries might make them learn some cultural practices, which are not taught in their home countries. It is also difficult for students to adapt to the new education system, and this might result into their failures in the end. Thus, it is important for students to complete their curriculum within the required time limit.
UAE Community Attitude
An interview on attitude of one English speaker within the UAE was conducted. The participant was known as John. The student, who was interviewed, was from Dubai and has been studying in the United States for over three years (Foley, 2008). He has been enrolled to study an ESL composition course at university within the USA. He was admitted to do the course depending on his proficiency on the Michigan English Language examination. The attitudes were observed and recorded based on the life he experienced in the university as well as the United States community.
From the interview, it was established that the student from the UAE, specifically India, have different attitudes towards individuals from other cultural backgrounds. The participants had a negative attitude towards fellow students from other countries. Besides, the student also had a negative attitude towards the kind of lifestyle that other students were living inside the university. However, in terms of academics, the participant did not have any language proficiency issue. He was perfect, and anyone could confuse that he was a native English speaker. Thus, he embraced academic standards of other states and could even accept them in his home country.
From the above discussion, it has been observed that the UAE students should be taken to the Outer Circle countries for academic purposes due to the language deficiency, which is a problem. High school graduates should be allowed to choose whichever education system they would like to follow. Besides, it is appropriate to send non-native English speakers to the Outer Circle countries to learn foreign languages, including English, so as to improve their language proficiency. The association with students from other cultural backgrounds through academics is very important since it helps students to learn from each other on a wider perspective, and this is an added advantage to the lives of students who are sent to the Outer Circle countries.
The scholarship program of sending the UAE students is also essential since it prevents any form of discrimination that might exist amongst students due to lack of exposure. For instance, when students from different cultural backgrounds associate through academics, they learn to embrace one another, and this is essential in promoting the international unity. It also prevents the discrimination against the non-native English speakers, which is a common issue that many foreign students experience when they go for further studies abroad.
The Outer Circle countries also employ non-native English speakers to teach students, who study at the university. This assists in spreading the wrong assumption that anybody from non-native countries cannot teach in the Outer Circle countries. This can even result into unrealistic anticipations by the local English language students (Deal, 2010). For instance, in case a native English speaker who does not have teaching qualifications teaches students in Spain, and one student asks why a certain sentence is not right, then it is not appropriate to reply to the student that the answer given is not right even if it seems so, just because he or she has said so.
To conclude this paper, it is appropriate for the UAE high school graduates to be sent to the Outer Circle countries to further their education. Therefore, the UAE institutions as well as their governments should establish the scholarship policy to ensure that students are sent to native English speakers countries for further studies. This will be essential to both students and the government from both the Inner Circle and the Outer Circle countries. They will be able to benefit from each other without the problem of language barrier.
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