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International Organizations

International organizations – IOs – is very powerful unit, which gain its effect in the world of international relations after the Second World War has ended. It continues to increase its numbers every year. IOs can be divided into intergovernmental organizations – IGOs and non-governmental organizations - NGOs.

According to Campbell, MacKinnon and Stevens (2010), an intergovernmental organization is divisible into three or more nation-states that have signed the agreement to create a legal organization with the definition of its purpose. It is often called as an international governmental organization with the abbreviation of IGO. In addition to the foundation agreement, most IGOs also have different authorities that are established to help the organization achieve its goals. In fact, IGOs usually contain the following bodies such as an advisory body, an executive authority and an administrative body. An advisory body discusses the policy. An executive organ makes policy decisions. An administrative body brings it into action.

There is no general definition of the non-governmental organizations – NGOs. The first direction of the scientific men’s views states that NGOs are groups of individuals, which are organized for a variety of reasons that involve human imagination and intention. The second direction is based on the idea that NGOs are stakeholders with the social or economic changes. That can lead to the conclusion that NGOs are organizations which consist of private individuals from any number of nation-states, which take on many of services and functions.

The United Nations, or UN, was founded in 1945. It’s Headquarter is located in New York City, which became the successor to the League. Like its predecessor, it has tried to prevent conflict between nation-states. Still, it continues to function and has proven an available institution in many ways. It is the largest and most comprehensive IGO in the world. Six principal organs help to assure its proper functioning. First is the United Nations General Assembly – UNGA. It is an organ of the UN that acts in legislative level and as the forum where all members can take part in international dialogue either. All member nations can send delegates to the General Assembly. Second is the United Nations Security Council – UNSC. It consists of the fifteen members of the UN that maintains peace and security. Ten rotating members sit on the Council who serve two-year terms. The US, Britain, China, Russia, and France are five permanent members with veto power. Third is the United Nations Economic and Social Council - ECOSOC. That organ contributes to international cooperation and elaborateness. It performs the majority of the United Nation work. Fourth is the Trusteeship Council – TC. Its responsibility is to assist with the transition of former colonies to independent countries, which went out of commission in 1994. The fifth is the International Court of Justice – ICJ. That is the arbitral authority of the United Nations that has the power to hear cases involving nation-states. Sixth is the Secretariat. This organ is a chief administrative office which coordinates and supervises the activities of the UN.

Both IGOs and NGOs decrease state sovereignty. However, IGOs’ worldwide influence has reduced the quality of life in developing countries while NGOs influence has had a positive effect on the quality of live in developing countries. The issues regarding the influence of IGOs and NGOs are extremely relevant everywhere in the globe. The decisions countries consider about their relationship with IGOs and NGOs all the time.

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